CX Tools of the Trade, Part 2: Customer Personas

Sandra Mathis

In this “Tools of the Trade” series, I focus on commonly used CX tools and practices. The series kicked off with Empathy Mapping, a common yet often misused and misunderstood CX tool that is at times confused with personas. Empathy maps are a visual representation of a customer’s thoughts and feelings. Customer personas, on the other hand, are intended to be data-informed “stand-ins” for your customer as you consider various aspects of their journey. They are one the most important ways to give a voice to your customer when they are not in the room.

The underlying purpose of customer personas is to provide an understanding of customers’ concerns and motivations by putting the company squarely in the shoes of the customer. Unlike empathy maps where there is a little wiggle room on the use of data, personas should always be based in real customer data, and contain detailed representations of different segments of a target audience.

That said, there are no hard and fast rules for what a customer persona should look like. If you saddle up to Google, you’ll find a plethora of guidelines and templates for what to include. Here is an example of a Customer Persona we created; one we’ve named “Andy.”

To really nail the effectiveness of your customer personas, there are a few things you should consider.


Strong personas are action-oriented. They should also feel relatable, like there is a real human behind the persona. When we created “Andy,” there was a tick list we walked through to achieve what felt like a real person— with real considerations, concerns, and needs.

  • Picture them. Give them a name, a photo, and basic demographics — noting that some personal details are more relevant in B2C than B2B.
  • Unpack their behavior. Include behavioral drivers such as a customer’s goals and their journey with your company and its products or services.
  • Consider the obstacles. Often, there are pain points or concerns a certain customer may encounter when interacting with your company. Include them so you can start to understand how each segment of customer will react in various situations.
  • Mind their mindset. Customers routinely come in with a mindset— with certain expectations and preconceived notions about your company and your products or services. How do you deliver with or against this mindset?


The best customer personas are based in, or leverage, real life data that is relevant and appropriately sourced. A persona based in real data is most apt to be accepted for longer-term use and business ROI. You could use something like average revenue for a customer segment or spend, or segmentation data including your competitive set.


Your organization will almost always have more than one customer type. Identify which ones are core today and potential tomorrow, and then create both. They can be at a segment level, but also at an enterprise level of use. Just make sure they provide enough depth to integrate across key aspects of the business, so it is actionable for various internal teams. This also ensures everyone is speaking about the same customer type, in the same way.


Consider how the customer persona will be used. And, add in the stuff that is appropriate to addressing those needs. Keep the seemingly irrelevant data details in case you need them later to understand a different part of the customer persona for different parts of your organization. For example, brand marketing may be interested in personality traits for advertising needs, while digital marketing will be more focused on media consumption. R&D or innovation teams will look at data related to buyer challenges and shopper data.


When it comes to customer experience work, it is not usual to hear of organizations leaving a space or “a seat at a table” for their customers. Take it a step further; bring your customer personas into conversations, especially in cases where the personas have a name. Bring a photo or a sign as a reminder— and, as appropriate, refer to them. “What would Andy say,” or “Is this something Andy would like?”

Personas can be basic or they can be complicated (or somewhere in between). But they should always be a part of your CX toolkit. Without them, the CX program risks lacking focus. Next up in the Toolkit series is the well-known and much loved journey mapping.

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